Mount Damavand a potentially active volcano, is a stratovolcano which is the highest peak in Iran and the Middle East, and the highest volcano in Asia; the Kunlun Volcanic Group in Tibet is higher than Damāvand, but are not considered to be volcanic mountains.


Damavand is a volcanic mountain located in the northern Iranian highest Iran and the Middle East, culminating at 5670 meters. Located in the center of the mountain range of Alborz, south of the Caspian Sea, in the department of Amol, it would date more than 38,500 years. It can be seen from the cities of Tehran, Varamin, Qom, as well as from the shores of the Caspian Sea if the weather is clear and sunny. The biggest city closest to this mountain is Larijan.

Scientists have claimed that the last eruption of Damavand volcano dates back to about 10,000 years.

The different slopes of this mountain are covered with ancient lava flows descended from the main summit or the secondary tops. The most recent lava flows are located on its western slope.

The diameter of the crater is nearly 400 km². The central part of the orifice is covered by an ice lake on the edge of which there are fumaroles, drawing a yellow circle around the latter.

Besides this central part, it is also possible to observe ancient orifices from which gas and fumaroles are sometimes escaped. On the northern side, one can also observe the trace of another ancient orifice with a diameter of about 9 km, from which the river Nounal is now the source. During the period of activity of Damavand volcano, the lava flows are mostly descended by the western slope and then reach the Lar river.

From the chemical point of view, the lavas of Damavand are distinguished by their richness in silica. Today, there are sulfuric stones and pure sulphurets abundant from 4000 m. altitude to the top. In spring, the slopes of Damavand are covered with poppies.

The easiest way to reach the top of Damavand is from the village of Polour on the road to Haraz (Tehran-Amol road).

There are also tourist spots located on the edge of the slopes and valleys of Damavand, including the Olmalek cave, 3 km from Polour, or Gol-e Zard, 1 km from the same village. on the road to the summit of Mount Damavand.

You can also visit many small mountain villages and discover the many thermal springs of the region.

In addition to the numerous articles devoted to it in various scientific books and journals, Damavand is also at the center of Persian myths and legends, the best known of which is the story of Zahhak (a dragon-like tyrannical king) imprisoned there there Ka'veh and Fereydun. The greatest Persian literary works, including Ferdowsi Shahnameh, also refer to it.