The National Museum
It is an institution formed of two complexes; the Museum of Ancient Iran (Mūze-ye Irān-e Bāstān) which was opened in 1937, and the Museum of Islamic Art and Archaeology of Iran which was opened in 1972.
The national museum was designed at the request of Reza Shah, by a French architect: André Godard, architect and archaeologist, born in 1881, died in 1965, became director of the archaeological services of Iran in 1928.
The museum was completed in 1928, and officially inaugurated in 1937 under the name of "Iran Museum". André Godard was appointed director by Reza Shah.
André Godard also designed the plans of the national library (Ketābkhāneh-ye melli) and the monument of the mausoleum of Hafez in Shiraz in collaboration with Maxime Siroux. He designed the University of Tehran in collaboration with Siroux, Mohsen Foroughi and Roland Dubrul. He was responsible for the restoration of major historical monuments in Iran, such as the Friday Mosque, the Shah Mosque and the Sheikh Lotfallah Mosque or the Abbasi Hotel in Isfahan.
The National Museum of Iran is made up of 2 buildings side by side: the oldest is the former "Iran Museum", and the newest is the museum of the Islamic era.
The lower floor
The lower level is dedicated to the Sassanid era, from the 3rd to the 7th century BC. Glass objects, bronze objects, stucco reliefs, mosaic decorations, pottery, ceramics, stone figurines and sculptures are on display ... achamenidae bas-reliefs, Sassanid mosaics and parthes ...
Most of them come from the excavations of Persepolis, Ismail Abad (near Qazvin), Shush (Suse), Rey (10 km south of Tehran) and Turang Tappeh (22 km from Gorgan, northeast).
Let us remember that the building of Persepolis began in 521 BC. on the orders of Darius I, who decides to establish a new capital as soon as the work of Susa finished, to symbolize the power of the Achaemenian sovereigns. The construction of Persepolis continued for more than two centuries, until the conquest of the empire and the partial destruction of the city by Alexander the Great in 331 BC.
The part of Persepolis includes: a magnificent capital with a man's head, a cuneiform inscription proclaiming the power of Xerxes, and a frieze in glazed tiles of the main hall of the Palace of Apadana (royal courtroom).
Susa, formerly "Shush"Susa, or "Shush", was founded around 4000 BC at a crossing point that linked the Tigris Valley to the Iranian plateau. The city is mentioned in the Bible under the name of "Chouchan", where mostly Jews lived, anxious to live far from other peoples. In the heart of Shush was the king's palace, which in the Megillah is called "Chouchane Habira", the word "Bira" meaning in Aramaic the citadel.
In the 5th century BC. Shush became the capital of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. The Persian Empire was the center of the world, an empire spanning 127 provinces, from India to Ethiopia.
The main monument of the Achaemenid period is the palace of Darius I. The king built it during the first years of his reign.
Susa fascinates me because the frieze of the archers of the Louvre, so beautiful with its glazed bricks, comes from the palace that Darius I had built in this city.
Susa is located in south-western Iran, about 140 km east of the Tigris River. Today it has only a field of ruins.
The small Iranian city of Susa which is near the site has taken its continuity.
The excavations at Shush did not begin until 1860 but in 1897 with Jacques de Morgan.
Among Shush's exhibits are a stone winged lion, animal-shaped pitchers and dishes, glazed colored glass vases decorated with creatures with mythical double wings, rhytons (terracotta vases ) of three different colors dating from the 5th millennium BC. JC, figurines, objects made of bone and alabaster.
A famous statue of Darius the Great, found in Susa in 1972, with a trilingual inscription.
It is the stone statue that Darius ordered to do in Egypt so that in the future, "who looks at it knows that the Persian man held Egypt".
That is to say that many of the pieces from Susa are in the Louvre Museum.