Historians and scholars before the Christian era, in their description of the ages dating back to 700 BC. , ie the end of the Elamite dynasty, the beginning of the Medes and the coming to power of the Achaemenids, called this region "the Persian Gulf". With the Christian era, Greek, Roman, and Egyptian historians and geographers continued to name it that way.



From antiquity to the present day, historical and geographical texts have always spoken of the Persian Gulf to designate the maritime part of southern Iran from the outlet of Arvandrud to the Strait of Hormuz. Some historians, geographers or archaeologists have also named it "Persian Sea", "Gulf Al-'ajam" or "Persian Gulf". Greek writers like Strabo were the first to name this sea "the Persian Sea" and the region of Iran, Persia. What they called Persepolis meant "the city or region of the Persians".

Historians and scholars before the Christian era, in their description of the ages dating back to 700 BC. , ie the end of the Elamite dynasty, the beginning of the Medes and the coming to power of the Achaemenids, called this region "the Persian Gulf". With the Christian era, Greek, Roman, and Egyptian historians and geographers continued to name it that way.

Referring to the Sassanid era, 5th century geographer Mussa Khuri, speaks of the Persian Gulf as a "Persian Sea" part of the Iranian Empire. The historical and geographical documents of the Islamic era speak of this region in the same terms: Khalij al-Fars or Bahr-ol-Fars. Dozens of famous historians like Ibn Faqih, Estekhari, Mas'udi and Ibn Hawqal also called the South Sea of ​​Iran "the Persian Sea".

Western travelers who came to Iran in the sixteenth century also referred to the "Persian Gulf" and historians of the Qajjar period, Mohamad Ebrahim Kateri, Reza Gholi Khan Hedayat, Lesn-ol-Molk Sepehr have always spoken of this maritime area in term "Persian Gulf" in the various books on the history of Iran that they wrote.

Arab historians like Jorji Zeidan, Qadri Qal'aji, Nofel Mesri, 'Ali Hamidan, have worked on the history of the Persian Gulf and on the nomination of this region which they have always called in this way. The German, French, American and Turkish encyclopaedias also spoke of the Persian Gulf to designate this region, while the English sometimes used other expressions to designate it because of the interference they had in the region.

The issue of the name of the Persian Gulf and a possible change of appointment has emerged in recent years and appears to be the result of a political maneuver that does not seem to have had the desired effect in the world. Lord Belgrave, British ambassador between 1926 and 1957 in various countries of the zone and who showed great animosity toward Iran and the Iranians, was the first to officially speak of the Arabian Gulf instead of the Persian Gulf. However, some English historians and politicians like Fred Halliday or Arnold Wilson have continued to use the term "Persian Gulf" in their articles and speeches.

The waters of the Persian Gulf are, under international regulations, under the control and authority of the Islamic Republic of Iran. In the preface to the new law on the territorial waters of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Persian Gulf and the Makran region sea, the 1982 maritime convention provided for 12 miles of surveillance area in addition to the 12 miles territorial seas, which confirms the ownership for the Islamic Republic of Iran, along with the Iranian islands, of much of the waters of the Persian Gulf.

 

The geopolitical and strategic situation of the Persian Gulf



Due to its economic, social, industrial and geographical situation, the Persian Gulf is of great strategic importance for the Islamic Republic of Iran and the other countries of the zone. Its strategic interest comes from its oil resources, which play a vital role in the global economy. Oil has been in operation for nearly fifty years and now, the economy of the countries of the zone rests mainly on the oil and gas exports, although the standard of living is different between the countries of the north and the south of the Persian Gulf . In addition, it is also the place of transit of the armaments, by sea, railway and road, role which was preponderant during the Second World War.

The Islamic Revolution in Iran has upset the geopolitical situation. For example, despite massive armament, Soviet forces at that time could not control the Islamic movements in Afghanistan influenced by the Islamic revolution in Iran, and were thus forced to turn back and resort to more political solutions. The new republics of Central Asia and the Caucasus were also influenced by the Islamic Revolution in Iran. All the Muslim countries, from the shores of the Mediterranean to the Horn of Africa, from the center of Africa to the countries of the Indian Ocean and the Far East, suffered in a different way the effects of this revolutionary wave.

After the Revolution, the Persian Gulf became a zone of tension as the great powers tried to accentuate their presence, resulting in multiple conflicts and violence. Linked to the Indian Ocean, it was always a strategic issue for the great powers. During the Cold War, the United States sought to establish its military bases in Oman and Bahrain and to make the Persian Gulf an American zone, while the USSR sought to establish itself in the southern regions of Yemen and Iraq.

The United States created rapid intervention forces to realize their plans involving the collaboration of many Arab countries in the region. These special forces were militarily weak and their reaction was unclear in the event of a coup or uprising, as the small countries of the region did not enjoy sufficient national unity to avoid internal conflicts. religious or ethnic. In the same way, the presence of numerous immigrant workers and various ideologies was at the origin of the constitution of movements threatening the political stability and the clanic powers not enjoying any democratic legitimacy and popularity at the national level. Even today, the situation has changed little and it is therefore very difficult to establish a Union of Persian Gulf Countries to ensure the security of this region, given the differences between leaders and governments.

Today, the calmness of the sea, the expanses of coastlines and the large number of islands have enabled the construction of military, commercial and fishing ports, as well as the circulation of oil tankers as well as those of riverboats. The military air and ground bases are very numerous and rub shoulders with the multiple installations of the maritime forces and big tourist complexes.

The most important military installations of the Gulf, are those of Ra'as Mosandam and Bandar Abbas, followed by that of Cha-bahar, Oman, Bahrain and Busher which are located successively on the coasts of Strait of Ormoz and the estuaries of the Makran region, the North Sea of ​​Oman and the northern Persian Gulf.

Airports and ports serve as ballistic and anti-aircraft sites. In addition, oil facilities in the Persian Gulf can be transformed into air control, maritime and submarine control bases, as well as airstrips for helicopters, warship ports, submarines and stores of weapons and ammunition. Finally, a 25 km bridge connects Bahrain to the Arabian Peninsula. In addition to its commercial uses, it represents a strategic interest as important as satellite control of air, coastal and submarine activities.