Tabriz is the economic and cultural center of northern Iran. The city has a particularity of language and culture. Its population and the spoken language are predominantly Azerbaijani, while Persian is hardly spoken in some administrations. Its cuisine is also closer to Turkish cuisine than that of central Iran.


Tabriz is the capital of the eastern province of Azerbaijan, north-west of Iran (Iranian Azerbaijan). It is located on the river Talkheh (also known as Aji-Chāi), near Lake Ourmia and the borders of the Republic of Azerbaijan and Armenia. Its population is 1,424,641.
Located at an altitude of 1,340 meters, 619 km north-west of Tehran, Tabriz is the second largest city in Iran until the late 1960s and one of its former capitals (with a population of 1,400,000 according to the 1992 census). Tabriz is in a valley north of the long ridge of Mount Sahand. The valley opens on a plain which slopes gently towards the northern end of Lake Oroumieh, 60 km to the west. The Talkheh River (also called Aji-Chāi), 160 km long, is the great river of the city, formed by the fusion of three small rivers, Nahand Ab, Quri Chai and Ojan Chai, all mountain Sabalan and heights in the southeast part of the city. The river and the brooks join Lake Oroumieh after crossing the valleys between the Sorkhband and Yekkeh Chin, mountain north of Tabriz and the district of Osku. The Mehran River (or Maidan Chai), also called the Liqvan River, comes from the peaks between Karim and the mountains that overlook the Sultan Liqvan village (major cheese production center in Iran) near Esparakhoun and Qeshlaq. Unfortunately, its worst natural disadvantage is its vulnerability to earthquakes, one of which completely destroyed the city in 858. Rebuilt, it was again devastated in 1041, when more than 40,000 people lost their lives.

Tabriz has many historical monuments, representing Iran's architectural transition throughout its deep history. Most of Tabriz's preserved historical sites belong to Ilkhanid, Safavid and Qajar dynaties. Among these is the grand Bazaar of Tabriz which is inscribed as a World Heritage Site in 2010. From the early modern era, Tabriz was pivotal in the development, movement and economy of three neighbouring regions; namely the Caucasus, Eastern Anatolia and Central Iran. From the 19th century, it became the most important city in the country in many respects. Tabriz is Iran's closest hub to Europe and so, many aspects of early modernisation in Iran began in this important city. Prior to forced ceding of Iran's Caucasian territories to Imperial Russia, following two Russo-Persian Wars in the first half of the 19th century, Tabriz was at the forefront of Iranian rule over its Caucasian territories due to proximity. Throughout most of the Qajar period (up to 1925), it functioned as the seat of the crown prince.

Language
The predominant language spoken in Tabriz is Azerbaijani Turkish (Azerbaijani people call it Türkü or Türki language). This is a Turkis language mutually intelligible with modern Turkish dialects. The language has a strong Iranian substratum as it had close contact with the Persian language for many centuries. Similar to the other parts of Iran, the official language in Tabriz is Persian and the most inhabitants have native or near-native knowledge of Persian language brcause they learn Persian in the school. Nevertheless, the Iranian constitution respects the right to speak and have limited educational facilities in other native languages, including Azerbaijani.

For the first time, an academic program on Azerbaijani language opened at the University of Tabriz in 1999. in addition to Azerbaijani, there is a significant minority of Armenian speakers and a smaller minority of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic speakers.
According to Wikipedia notes, it is believed that before the gradual increase and dominance of Azerbaijani language in the area, other Iranian languages similar to Farsi were spoken in Azerbaijan and Tabriz. The 13th-century manuscript Safina-yi Tabriz has poems in what its Tabriz-born author has called the Tabrizi language (Zabān-e-Tabrizi) which is similar to Farsi language. Samples of the Tabrizi dialect of the Old Azeri language include quatrains recorded in Tabrizi dialect by Abd al-Qadir Maraghi, phrases from Baba Faraji Tabrizi and poems in Tabrizi in the Safina-yi Tabriz, and poetry from Homam Tabrizi, Mama Esmat Tabrizi, Maghrebi Tabrizi and others.

Tabriz Weather

It is highly difficult, if not impossible, to forecast what the weather will be like at a certain time in a very precise place.

Yet, all travelers would like to know in advance the climatic conditions to organize their next trip.

Averages of temperatures or precipitation can help you and give you a good idea about it.

 

By plane

Daily flights from Tehran with Iran Air, Iran Aseman and other companies go to Tabriz. There are direct flights from Dubai to Tabriz operated by Kish Air, from Baghdad by Air ATA, from Baku by Air Kish, from Gaziantep operated by Sky Airlines, from Istanbul operated by Turkish, Iran Air, Air ATA and Kishair. There are also direct flights from Damsacus.

Flights to other Iranian cities are rare. Ask your favorite Iranian travel agency for schedules.


By car

By the newly built bridge over the Ourmia Tabriz Lake is accessible from Ourmia in 1 h 30 min.


By train

Daily train from Tehran: 12 Hour travel deals.

Weekly from and to Istanbul.

By bus

6-8 hours trip from Tehran. It is easy to buy the bus ticket from the big cities.