Sistan and Balouchistan
The province of Sistan and Baluchistan is the second largest province of Iran, with an area of 187,502 km². The province is located at 25 ° 3 'at 31 ° 28' north latitude and 58 ° 47 'at 63 ° 19' east longitude.
The province of Sistan and Baluchistan is the second largest province of Iran, with an area of 187,502 km². The province is located at 25 ° 3 'at 31 ° 28' north latitude and 58 ° 47 'at 63 ° 19' east longitude. It is located in the southeast of the country, on the border with Pakistan (900 km) and Afghanistan (300 km). The southern coast of Sistan and Balouchistan province, bordering the Arabian Sea, is 270 km long. This province is located south of the Iranian province of Southern Khorasan, east of the provinces of Kerman and Hormozgan. The province is made up of two parts that are geographically and demographically different: Sistan in the north and Balouchistan in the south. The Sistan is a plain of 8117 km² formed by ancient and recent alluvial lands of the Hirmand river. Baluchistan is a vast mountain range, with an area of 179,385 km², located between the great desert of Dasht-e Lut, an arid land of sand and rock in the north, and the coast of the Arabian Sea to the south. The geographical situation of the province of Sistan and Baluchistan, which has land borders with two neighboring countries (Pakistan and Afghanistan) and maritime borders along the Arabian Sea, gives it a special importance, accentuated by the ethnic diversity , linguistic, cultural and religious of the local population. According to the last administrative divisions of Iran, in 1996, the province of Sistan and Baluchistan is composed of 7 departments, 29 communes and 6038 villages. The departments of the province are Iranshahr, Chabahar, Khash, Zabol, Zadedan, Saravan and Nikshahr.
Location and climate of Sistan and Balouchistan
In the geology of the Iranian plateau, the eastern parts of the country are considered as an independent group of the rest of the plateau, formed by the orogenic movements towards the end of the tertiary era. According to geological studies, the southern region of Sistan and Balouchistan (Mokran) province is characterized by a major geological phenomenon: the subsidence of the soil under the weight of very thick sedimentary layers of the Tertiary era whose thickness is sometimes more than one kilometer. As a result, the Indian Ocean plate sinks below the Mokran plain, which explains the existence of many mineral springs in the region. The reliefs of the province of Sistan and Balouchistan were formed during the secondary era and the tertiary era by the folding of layers of gypsum and limestone. According to the experts, some mountains in Sistan and Balouchistan provinces (including the Taftan volcano) appeared in the late Tertiary and early Quaternary periods.
The reliefs of the province of Sistan and Balouchistan are dispersed in a heterogeneous way.
The mountain ranges are wider in the south of the province, especially between the two cities of Iranshahr and Kohak. The province of Sistan and Balouchistan is subject to seasonal winds of various directions, the most important of which is the wind of the Indian Ocean, and monsoons (regular tropical wind) which bring profound changes to the climate of the region. In general, the province has a warm, wetter climate in the south and more arid to the north. The warm season is long, while in winter the temperature rarely drops to 0 ° C. Vegetation grows regularly throughout the year, which favors regular farming activities in some parts of the province.
In all the important cities of Sistan and Baluchistan province, the temperature can rise to 40 ° C during the summer. In June, mercury can rise up to 50 ° C. In winter, however, most areas of the province have a moderate climate, and the average temperature is around 12 ° C. south of the province have significant humidity. This humidity is accentuated by heat and seasonal winds which increases the spontaneous evaporation of water up to an average rate of 4 mm per day.
Rainfall is more abundant during the winter months. On the other hand, during the seven months of the hot season, it hardly ever rains. The western parts of the province are generally more rainy than the eastern regions. The annual rainfall rate averages nearly 70 mm, and atmospheric precipitation is generally very erratic. The departments of Khash and Zahedan have a higher rainfall with an average annual rate of 120 mm, while it rains much less in the Zabol department where the rainfall is down to 51 mm per year. In the coastal areas of southern Sistan and Balouchistan, the moisture level rises to 70% or 80% in January; but during the summer, it decreases perceptibly. The western coast of Balouchistan, which is closer to the Indian Ocean, is wetter.
The population of the province of Sistan and Baluchistan is divided into two parts according to the lifestyle of sedentary or nomadic inhabitants. The latter are generally Baloch tribes whose lives are made of continual displacements. The settled Baloch population lives on agriculture, while the nomadic Baluchis are pastoralists. In recent years, unfortunately, the drought has caused great damage to the agricultural and livestock activities of the Baloch population of the province.
In Sistan and Baluchistan province, women are involved in craft activities, because in the modest life they lead they do not, in fact, have much housework. Moreover, the beliefs and traditions of Baloch society do not allow women to have social and professional activities outside the family home. Baloch girls learn arts and crafts from the age of seven. They thus supplement family income, in a society where tougher manual trades such as pottery, carpet weaving, and so on. are not practiced by men, but always by women.
Carpets: The weaving of carpets in the area goes back to the time of the Sakas who lived, there are two thousand years in the plain of Sistan.  The Sakas were sedentary nomads who were both farmers and ranchers, and knew the art of carpet weaving very well. Indeed, the oldest rug in the world, discovered during archaeological excavations in Siberia, was woven by the Sakas. During the Islamic period, the Sistan region was famous for its silk and wool carpets. The motifs of the Sistan carpets are very similar to those of Turkmen weavers. In addition, Baluchi carpets with original designs are in great demand in neighboring areas such as Kerman, Khorasan and Mazanderan. In the past, the weavers of the Sistan used horizontal looms specific to the nomadic populations, but gradually, they replaced them with vertical looms as in most major cities of Iran.
Kilim:The inhabitants of the two northern (Sistan) and southern (Balouchistan) regions of the province also produce the kilim (a kind of woven carpet). It is a feminine activity in nomadic circles. Wool is the main raw material kilim woven by traditional methods, devoid of any plan established in advance. The colors of the threads used are often dark: black, purple or dark red on a white or yellow background.
Balouch embroidery: Embroidery is the most famous and original artisanal art of Baloch women. Baluchi embroidery (Persian: suzanduzi سوزن دوزی) is a very fine art whose origins are not known, but it is the art of almost all Baloch girls and women. This embroidery very rich in colors and original patterns is perhaps the only luxury of life of the inhabitants of Baluchistan. The motifs are often borrowed from nature (flowers and plant forms), represented in a very original way. The traditional Baluchi dress (men and women) always wear embroidery made vertically from top to bottom and on the pockets.
Khameduzi: It is an art very close to Baloch embroidery, very widespread in the rural areas of Sistan. These embroidery are monochrome, only in white thread. Elderly dresses often wear khameduzi instead of colored embroidery. Siahduzi ("black embroidery" سیاه دوزی) is a variant of this art that uses only black silk threads. Unlike Balochi embroidery, these products are of local consumption in the Sistan region.
Pottery: The village of Kolpurgan, located 30 km from Saravan, is the main center of pottery Balouchistan. Pottery is a feminine activity and men only intervene to transfer the earth to workshops maintained entirely by women. The pottery of Kolpurgan is neither enamelled nor vitrified, and it is adorned only by simple geometrical patterns in black.