Qom was conquered in the year 23 AH by an army of Arab Muslims led by Abu Musa Ash'ari.


Qom was conquered in the year 23 AH by an army of Arab Muslims led by Abu Musa Ash'ari. Nearly six thousand members of the Ash'ari clan settled in Qom in the year 93 AH. They were Shiites and made this city a place of refuge for the Muslims who supported the descendants of Imam 'Ali and opposed the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs. Qom became, from the middle of the second century of the Hegira, an important center of Shiite theology, and still remains today one of the most important centers of Twelver Shiism in the world.


The Shiite cities of Iran during the first centuries of the Hegira

It was from the reign of the Safavids, in the ninth century of the Hegira, that Twelver Shiism became a state religion and spread to Iran. Prior to this period, Iran was predominantly Sunni; only the inhabitants of some regions in Iran were Shiites. During the first three centuries of the Hegira, Shiite Iranians lived mainly in three regions: in the north of Iran in the provinces of Deylaman (corresponding globally to the present province of Guilan) and Tabarestan (corresponding to the present-day province of Mazandaran); to the north-east of Iran in the region corresponding to the province of Khorasan, in particular to Beyhagh corresponding to the present city of Sabzevar; in Qom and its surroundings. The western part of the Sassanid empire (located in Mesopotamia and corresponding to present-day Iraq) was the first region of the empire conquered by the Muslim Arabs, who founded the cities of Kufa and Basra for it. install there. The conquest of the rest of the Sassanian empire was gradually made over several centuries, with more or less resistance depending on the region. In the eastern part of the Sassanid empire (corresponding to present-day Iran), Qom was the first city to have only Twelver Shiites. This specificity of Qom is linked to the fact that the Arabs who settled there were followers of Imam 'Ali and his descendants.

 

Qom was a city in the Sassanid era

In the books on Shiism in Iran, it is often written that Qom did not exist as a city when the Arabs settled there, which is false because many historical texts and archaeological findings show that Qom was a important city during the pre-Islamic period. It was destroyed by Alexander during the fall of the Achaemenid Empire (in 330 BC) and remained in a state of ruin until the reign of Ghobad I (Sassanid king, 488-496 and 499). -531) who, returning from the Hephthalites, finding the city in ruins, gave the order to rebuild it. This city was named after Viran abad-e kard-kavad (expression that means "the ruined city that Ghobad rebuilt"), until the reign of Yazdguerd III. In the historical texts, it is mentioned that during the battle of Ghadessieh (or Qadisiyya, in 636 CE), an army of 25,000 soldiers led by Shirzad, governor of Qom and Kashan, came for support the army of Iran; likewise, in the battle of Nahavan (642 CE), 20,000 mounted soldiers from Qom and Kashan were present in the army of Iran, and after the defeat of the Iranians, the governor of Qom went to Isfahan to meet King Yazdguerd III (632-651). Historians have written that during the attack on the Arabs in Qom, the city was so big that the men mobilized only neighboring villages were nearly 4000, and they each had a servant, a baker and a cook. The author of Tarikh-e Qom (book on the history of Qom written in 385 AH) also wrote that the city of Qom existed in the Sassanid era. There are still today, in the vicinity of Qom, the ruins of many fire temples and other Zoroastrian monuments.

 

The Ash'ari

Qom was conquered in year 23 of the Hegira by Abu Musa Ash'ari. The Ash'ari came from Hedjaz (western region of the Arabian Peninsula) and settled in Kufa after the conquest of the western part of the Sasanian Empire.
No. 93 AH, several members of this family fled to Qom to flee the oppression of the Umayyad caliphs. They began construction there, among others a new wall for the city, stronger than the previous one and which brought the Anar River within the city walls. The author of Tarikh-e Qom is the main narrator of the arrival and installation of Ash'ari Arabs in the Qom region. It can be concluded from reading this author that Iranians lived in this area, but the Arabs expelled them from the city or killed them as a result of a conflict with them. The Ash'ari were from the outset Shiites duodecimans, and had contacts with the descendants of Imam 'Ali. They are even mentioned repeatedly in Shiite books as companions Imams. The Ash'ari family changed its name later and was called Qomi. The Ash'ari, taking control of the city of Qom, made it a refuge for the descendants and followers of Imam 'Ali . The latter, pursued by the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs during the first centuries of the Hegira, came to Iran and settled in areas where the inhabitants were friendly to them. There are even hadiths in which Imam Ja'far Sadde quotes the city of Qom and considers it a refuge for the Shiites. The historical texts mention numerous revolts of the inhabitants of Qom against the envoys of the caliphs.