Sari is the provincial capital of Mazandaran and former capital of Iran, located in the north of Iran, between the northern slopes of the Alborz Mountains and southern coast of the Caspian Sea.

Sari is the capital of the province of Mazanderan in Iran. It is located north of the Elborz mountain range and on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea.

The name of the city derives from Sarouyeh, son of Farkhan the Great, King of Tabaristan.

History of Sari

Excavations in the Hutto caves showed the existence of encampments around the Sari site as early as the seventieth millennium BC. The Muslim historian Hamdellah Mostoufi attributes the foundation of Sari to King Tahmoures Divband of the Pishdad Dynasty. The popular belief of the inhabitants of Sari is that the city was populated around the fourth millennium BC., when Kaveh the blacksmith, a native of this city, rebelled against the tyranny of Zahhak. After this success, Fereydun de Pishdadi, in thanks to Kaveh, chose this city to live near him until his death. After Īraj, son of Fereydun, was assassinated by Touraj and Salam, he was buried in Sari. Espahbod Tous-e Nouzar, Fereydun's eldest son, is sometimes considered the real founder of the city. The researches of Greek historians on Sari date back to the 6th century BC., during the Achaemenid dynasty, and they called the city Zadrakarta. It was destroyed and rebuilt by Alexander of Macedonia during his conquests. The city was renamed Syrinx after the name of a lieutenant-general of Alexander. The city was again a regional capital under the Sassanids.

In the seventh century, Farkhan the Great rebuilt it again, and called it Sarouyeh in homage to his son whose name it was. It was at this time that the city took the name of Sari and became the capital of Tabaristan. The city was later destroyed and rebuilt several times in the following centuries after undergoing invasions by the Mongols and Turks.

Shah Abbas I, whose mother was Sarivi (resident of Sari, but actually Ashrafi), integrated Mazandaran into his empire and made Farahabad the alternative capital of his empire.

Sari regains its moment of glory when Agha Mohammad Shah proclaims the capital city of his empire on March 21, 1782, on the occasion of the Persian new year. The capital of the Qajars was then transferred to Tehran by Fath Ali Shah because it was in the middle of a region where wars were incessant.

The most notable development of the city takes place in the twentieth century under Reza Shah Pahlavi's rule which turns it into an important railway station for the newly built Iranian railway. It is from this time that most buildings of the city date.

Sari is briefly occupied during the Second World War by Soviet troops who will leave at the end of the war. During the Iran-Iraq war, the city will host war refugees, most of whom subsequently settled on the spot.

Transport in Sari

By plane
•    Dasht-e Naz International Airport. Four daily flights in the summer season and six weekly flights in other seasons scheduled to and from the Iranian Capital.
There is also weekly flight to Mashhad and Saudi Arabia. Airport is located in the northeast of the city and less than 10 kilometers from city center. Shared and Airport taxis are available in the airport parking. A highway is under construction in order to connect the airport and city directly.

By train
The city is connected to Gorgan and Tehran by train as well, since it is on a major branch of the Iran's Railroad.F passenger trains getting to sari each day, one Local train runs from gorgan about 6 AM and gets sari before 9 AM, and returns from Sawatcow in 1 PM and arrive to sari at 2:30 PM, another one depart from Tehran at 9:10 AM every day and arrive to sari about 4:30 PM, and left sari at 8:30 (Summers) and 9:10 (Winters) to arrive to Tehran about 4 AM.

At the end of the 1920s, Reza Khan Pahlavi decided to start the construction of a railway line between the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf over a distance of 1400 km, with the declared intention of bringing his country to modernity. The first works began in 1928 and ended in 1939. They cost $ 140 million, colossal for the time, fully funded by a tax on the sale of sugar and tea.

Under a beautiful October sun, we begin the journey on the stretch of this line between Tehran and Sari, capital of the province of Mazandaran, near the south-east shore of the Caspian Sea. Between these two points stand the mountains of Alborz with its east-west oriented valleys and many peaks that exceed 4000 meters, promise of an unforgettable trip to the breathtaking scenery.

The train to Sari leaves daily from Tehran's pleasant Central Station, built in the 1930s, of pure Art Deco style, spacious, clear and functional. After checking our passports and our tickets by the police, we settle in a train consisting of a dozen cars, where the expression of use indicating that it is dangerous to lean at the window is written in Flemish. This language is rarely spoken by local travelers; this is a likely sign that the train is of European construction. Our car is almost deserted, and we settle in the first compartment come. The departure signal is given at 9:20 am for a seven-hour trip to reach Sari, which is 280 km from Tehran by road.
Once the suburbs are crossed, in a landscape punctuated by large modern buildings built in the desert, we pass without transition from vegetable gardens, loaded at this time of the year with heavy red grenades, in the desert of southern Tehran. After a loop of an hour and a half in the plain, our train finally goes to the north, then enters the Alborz. Mountains, cliffs and canyons of ocher color, yellow, brown and sometimes green, offer magnificent views. The train gently zigzags in this mineral landscape, at the edge of a plant line that grows near the river descending from the peaks. Sometimes, bikers overtake us, in a semblance of running with our train, raising clouds of amber earth on the tracks of the desert.

More than three hours after our departure, we arrive at Firouzkouh, city generally reached in two hours by the road. A second motor is attached to the first, because the convoy will climb, through a steppe landscape populated by large flocks of sheep, to a pass at 2500 meters above sea level. Then suddenly, the train will switch to the Caspian, thirty meters below sea level. The route is punctuated by many tunnels and spectacular bridges spanning deep valleys. Once past the pass, the train slides along steep walls, through a succession of laces and tunnels, short, long, straight, curve, from which we emerge a few meters below the point where we entered.
We descend into the valley, 1500 meters lower. What is amazing is that the train passes over a point, then next to it and, after a moment, below, that is to say after 10 minutes of travel we only travel 200 meters as the crow flies. Once in the valley, after about forty laces and a crossing on a bridge that rises 110 meters above a ravine, we enter a landscape of rice fields and forests, watered on average 300 days a year, offering a striking contrast with the southern slope. In this season, the rice fields are not in water, they serve as pasture for many cows.

At our twelfth stop, the small town of Pol-e Sefid, we lose our mountain locomotives, replaced by a less powerful motor, announcing our entry into the coastal plain. The rain is, of course, at the rendezvous. After fifteen stations and seven o'clock we arrive at four o'clock at the end of our journey to Sarri, in a station without grace. Early enough to enjoy a good visit of the city and some beautiful typical houses of Mazandaran, after installation in a hotel with old-fashioned charm. All the charm of the province ...

By car
There are many automobile and car routes from the Main cities next or nearby sari. Sari is connected to Neka and Shahi by the A62 Autobahn, All of the Coastal cities in Mazandaran have at least 8 bands (4 forward and 4 backward). Many of people are visiting sari via Turkmenistan-Mazandaran (Iran) borders, it is possible to getting Visa of Iran from border, and to continue trip around Caspian Sea.

By bus
There are five bus terminals in Sari. So it’s easy to get around the county by buses. City buses has destinations to approximately all of the towns in Iran, but be aware that the buses are not running every day, but it has hourly buses for Tehran, also it is possible to getting the bus from the IMAM KHOMEINI SQ. located in the south east of city when no bus may be founded in the busy days.

By boat
The port of Amir Abad is located on the beautiful southern coast of the Mazandaran Sea. however, the cruise is not high quality and may not preferred.