Isfahan is a city in the center of Iran. It is considered by its inhabitants as one of the most beautiful cities in the world. It is a historical city, ancient capital of Persia from 1598 to 1722, it has long been known for its beautiful carpets with silver filigree. Today, the textile and steel industry occupy their place. Its architecture, tree-lined boulevards and relaxed rhythm make it one of the highlights of cities of Iran. The city is the capital of the province of Isfahan.

Isfahan (in Persian: اصفهان) is a city in Iran, capital of the province of Isfahan. It is located about 340 kilometers south of the capital, Tehran. Third largest city in Iran (after Tehran and Mashhad) with 2,031,324 inhabitants in September 2015, the metropolitan area of ​​Isfahan is one of the major centers of industry and education in Iran.


Location of Isfahan

Isfahan was the capital of the Persian Empire under the Safavid dynasty between the sixteenth century and the eighteenth century. The town is well irrigated and its verdure offers a very special contrast with the desert expanses that surround it. The works undertaken under the Shah Abbas, making Isfahan a showcase of architecture and Safavid art extremely refined, as well as the many Islamic monuments built between the eleventh and nineteenth century, make Isfahan one of the jewels of the Middle -East.

Naghsh-e Jahan Square (Persian: میدان نقش جهان) has been a World Heritage Site since 1988.

The name of the city in old Persian was Aspadana, became Spahān or Espahān in Middle Persian then Esfahan after the Muslim conquest.

The Arabic alphabet does not have sound / p /, the name of the city became Esfahan after the conquest by the Arabs in 651. There are also transcriptions such as Isfahan or Ispahan which originate from different accents.

"Esfahan Nesf-e Jahān" (Persian: اصفهان نصف جهان) is a word game on his name that says this city is "half of the world".

The Zayandeh rud, one of the few large permanent rivers on the Iranian plateau, flows into a salt lake (Lake Gavkhuni) in the desert. The Zayandeh Rud basin extends up to 90 kilometers north of Isfahan and fresh winds blow from the north and refresh the basin. This basin, which covers 41,500 square kilometers in central Iran, is linked to the history of Isfahan. Indeed, the town of Ispahan is the center of this basin. This position has partially given it its historical and economic importance in the history of the country. River water resources increased by 50% (790 million m3) in the last years of the 20th century thanks to the construction of two aqueducts that lead water from Kuhrang to Zayandeh rud.

An artificial network, whose components are called madi, has been used since at least the seventeenth century to provide water to the inhabitants and cultures of the city and its surroundings. Designed by Sheikh Bahai, an engineer of Shah Abbas, this network comprises 77 madis on the northern part, and 71 on the southern part of the Zayandeh rud. In 1993, this centuries-old network provides 91% of agricultural water needs, 4% of industrial needs, and 5% of the city's needs. According to a study carried out by Iranian researchers, 35% of this network would have been destroyed with the modernization that the city has experienced since the 1960s.

Some of the water in the Zayandeh rud was diverted in 2001 upstream from Ispahan, causing a marked decline in the level of the river in the city.

Weather of Isfahan
The weather of Isfahan and the region around it is semi-desert with a period of drought extending from April to November. The average annual precipitation is 130 mm, mostly during the winter months, between December and April, in the form of snow or rain. During the summer, there is no precipitation. The difference between summer and winter is noticeable, with an average of 30 ° C in July and 3 ° C in January. Annual potential evapotranspiration is 1,500 millimeters per year, making any form of agriculture impossible without irrigation.