The province of Hormozgan is one of the major tourist areas of Iran and stands out for its natural attractions such as unique mangrove forests, sandy and rocky beaches, and salt domes.
Geotourism and attractions of the province of Hormozgan
The province of Hormozgan is one of the major tourist areas of Iran and stands out for its natural attractions such as unique mangrove forests, sandy and rocky beaches, and salt domes. The warm and humid climate of this province contributes to the richness of its flora, of which we present here the main aspects.
The protected area of harra
The province of Hormozgan is located on a strip of tropical vegetation of the northern hemisphere. One of the climatic characteristics of this band of vegetation, which crosses, from south-west to south-east of Iran, the provinces of Boushehr, Hormozgan and Sistan-va-Baloutchistan, are its low rainfall and the annual evaporation . The vegetation of Hormozgan, however, takes different faces under the effect of climate change and soil type. The mangrove (harra in Persian) is one of the types of vegetation of Hormozgan, a rare plant biology that grows in particular conditions in coastal waters and hosts one of the most delicate and complex ecosystems in the world. Thus, the Avicenniaceae mangrove trees that make up the Iranian mangroves are ecosystems characteristic of this pseudo-tropical zone, particularly in the island of Qeshm, in the Strait of Hormuz, in the Indian Ocean in the east. , and on the coast of Makran (the Sea of Oman) as well as those of the port of Gwadar. This family was named in honor of Avicenna.
Mangrove forests are very specific ecosystems whose plant and animal communities can be formed under very specific conditions. The mangrove forests in southern Iran are of two main types, but as we have mentioned, the most common species is the Avicennia marina found in the protected area of Harra. Daily tides play an important role in organizing the ecosystem diversity of this area.
The Harra Forest extending over Khouran Strait, between Gheshm Island and Khamir Harbor, has been considered a protected area since 1973. There are two types of biosphere reserve in this area.
It is an important habitat for migratory birds during the cold season, as well as for reptiles, fish, and various varieties of arthropods and bivalves. Green turtles and aquatic venomous snakes also live in forests. The forest also hosts birds such as herons, flamingos, pelicans and fish eagles. These forests also provide particularly favorable conditions for fish breeding in the Persian Gulf.
The protected area of Geno
Located northwest of Hormozgan at a distance of 30 km from Bandar Abbas, this area was named because of its proximity to Geno Mountain, which is the second highest peak in the region after Fareghan. In comparison with the hot climate of Bandar Abbas, this region enjoys a relatively mild climate and for this reason has unique ecological characteristics. It has significant resources, including important sources that provide water for flora and fauna in all seasons. The hot springs of Geno have therapeutic properties that make it an attractive place frequented by the inhabitants of the coast.
Because of its particular geological situation, the province of Hormozgan has several sources of mineral water and hot water, the most important of which are those of Geno, Khorgo, Khamir, Tchastaneh, Sorkhan and Ma'douniyeh. Hot springs are used by Iranians to heal rheumatism, lymphatism, asthma and skin diseases. These sources contain chlorinated, sulphurous and sulphato-chlorinated water, each of which has its own therapeutic properties. For example, sulphurous waters are known to treat the respiratory tract, urinary tract, diseases of the digestive system, cardio-arterial diseases, dermatological infections and rheumatic diseases.
Qeshm Geopark and Salt Domes
The salt domes are unique geological landscapes. At their side, the remarkable diversity of quarries and salt caves is one of the major natural tourist attractions of this province. The Geopark Gheshm includes one of the largest salt caves in the world. The Geopark qualifies an area encompassing one or more sites of scientific importance, not only for geological reasons but also because of its archaeological, ecological or cultural value. It therefore extends over a vast area with clearly defined boundaries and includes within it several remarkable geological phenomena. The Qeshm Geopark, jointly managed by UNESCO and the Iranian authorities, has an area of more than 1500 km2 and is located on the west side of the island, between latitudes of 55 ° 44 • 28 • and 55 ° 44. • 44 • east and longitudes of 26 ° 44 • 62 • and 26 ° 35 • 00 • north. It is a linear zone bounded on the east by the Tabl-Salakh axis, on the west by the Gouri-Kani axis, on the north by the north coast and on the south by the south coast. As the only site of its kind in the Middle East, the Gheshm Geopark was registered as part of the Global Network of Geoparks (GGN) in Paris on March 21, 2006.
In addition, the salt domes southwest of the island make up the bulk of the western terrain of the province. The salt domes are formed when the salt at depth is pushed to the surface by the weight of the surrounding rocks. The Syahu salt dome is one of the most famous in the region. It stretches for 3 km northwest of Syahu, in Bandar Abbas, where the salt caves are very deep. The Syahu salt dome contains significant reserves of salt used in the chemical industry. Compared to other domes of the province, it contains unique landscapes including a cascade of salt, or stalactites of various shapes forming large columns of salt.