Human settlements in Golestan date back to 10 000 BC. Evidence of the ancient city of Jorjan can still be seen near the current city of Gonbad-e Kavus. It was an important city of Persia located on the Silk Road.

The economy of Golestan Province

Agricultural and livestock activities are the mainstay of the economy of Golestan province. They also include, because of its maritime boundary with the Caspian Sea, fishing and aquaculture. Wheat is the main product produced there, both in the form of aridoculture and by practicing irrigation with high yields compared to the whole country. The main products of fruit growing are peach, the so-called "golden drop" plum, orange, tangerine and blackberry, used to feed silkworms.

Growing trees such as oak, beech, alder, maple, elm and basswood to sell wood is another important economic activity in the province. In addition to these species, a rare variety of yew grows in relatively virgin and dense forests in the Aliabad region. There is also a particular variety of cypresses in the Zarrin Gol, Aliabad, Ramian and Minou Dasht forests, which also grow in the Sourkosh forests at an altitude of 1600 meters. These cypresses have created a unique landscape in these areas, and are likely to be exploited in the future.

Due to the favorable weather conditions for growing forage crops and their by-products, the presence of agricultural fields producing residues used in animal feed and large grasslands, the province enjoys very favorable conditions for animal husbandry. livestock. In addition, the presence of animal feed factories, agricultural cooperatives, a large number of animal and livestock science graduates, and geographical advantages such as the proximity of Central Asian countries and their consumer markets make this province a breeding ground for livestock development. It consists mainly of raising livestock, poultry, bees, silkworms and fish. The main animal products from the region are raw milk, red meat, white meat (chicken, fish), eggs and honey. The province provides a significant portion of the country's food needs.

In addition, one of the economic activities that is also part of the province's tourist attractions is its various markets. There are two types: permanent markets, such as the Farriers (na'lbandan). Despite the social, economic and cultural changes experienced by the province in recent decades, this old market has retained its place in the heart of the city of Gorgan and after having undergone some transformations, it continues to play an active role in its activities. commercial. The second type of market is the temporary markets that are held on certain days of the week in most cities in the province. These are places where local people, especially farmers and artisans, come together to sell their products. There is a very old tradition of such markets in the cities of Bandar-e Torkaman and Aq Qala, but today the vast majority of cities host these fairs on fixed days. For example, they hold Wednesdays in the city of Gorgan, Fridays in Gonbad, Sundays in Kordkoui, Mondays in the port of Bandar-Torkaman and Thursdays in Aq Qala.

The province also has 19 active mines, including the Gonbad coal and limestone mines. From the point of view of the tectonic distribution, the province is situated on the plates of Gorgan-Rasht, Alborz-Azerbaidjan and Koppeh-Dagh. The Gorgan plain is the largest region of the Gorgan-Rasht tectonic plateau. To the east, this plateau touches that of Binaloud and Koppeh-Dagh, where we can note the presence of sedimentary rocks of the Precambrian period. The oldest rocks in the province are shale. In 2002, about 212,000 tonnes of limestone were extracted for sale. Other materials extracted from mines in the region include coal, limestone, and refractory stone.

In addition to these natural resources, the province's economy depends on significant industrial activity. Golestan has more than 433 industrial units, with fixed investments of 467 million rials and a source of employment for more than 10,000 people, more than 90% of which are in small enterprises employing less than 50 people. About 40% of the province's industries produce food, beverages, and process products derived from agriculture, livestock, and fishing. The largest volume of investment in the industrial sector is in the agricultural products sector.

The main factories of the province were founded before the Revolution and belong mainly to the agro-food sector, like those of Gol Cheshmeh, Gorgan, but also the industrial complex of Bois du Nord, chipboard panels, located 22 km from Gorgan on the road Gonbad, as well as 25 cotton factories and 28 flour.

After the revolution and the founding of the Islamic Republic, other factories were created, including one for the production of cottonseed oil in Nezamabad, or soya. In terms of industrial development, the province ranks 25th nationally and 19th in terms of value added. It ranks 13th in terms of natural resources and means of production.
More recently, in 1998, the Golestan industrial zone was created as part of an industrial development policy. The established program has been successful since the beginning of its activity in promoting the development and improvement of infrastructures related to running water, electricity, telephone and paved streets in cities such as Aq Qala, Bandar Gaz , Gonbad, Maraveh-Tappeh, Minoudasht and Aliabad and to establish floriculture industry establishments in Gorgan, Bandar-e Torkaman, Azadshahr and Kordkoui.
Finally, in terms of transportation infrastructure, the province has a railway network connecting the city of Gorgan with other cities such as Bandar-e Torkaman, Sari, Savadkouh, Garmasr and Tehran. Given its favorable geographical location, it welcomes thousands of tourists every year, which include a stopover to reach the holy city of Mashhad.