The History of Kermanshah Province (Part II)
Ebrahim Mirza Afshar, nephew of Nadir Shah, rebelled against his brother Adel Shah and sent a troop to Kermanshah, who pillaged the whole city. But shortly after, Hossein Khan Zangeneh took Kermanshah, confiscated the wealth of the local merchants, and seized the artillery of the fortress.
Ebrahim Mirza Afshar, nephew of Nadir Shah, rebelled against his brother Adel Shah and sent a troop to Kermanshah, who pillaged the whole city. But shortly after, Hossein Khan Zangeneh took Kermanshah, confiscated the wealth of the local merchants, and seized the artillery of the fortress. Kermanshah then became the scene of clashes between the Zand forces and Ali-Mardan Khân Bakhtiâri. After a two-year siege supported by the Zangeneh and Kalhor tribes, Mohammad Khan Zand occupied the fortress of Kermanshah in the name of Karim Khan Zand in 1753. Ali-Mardan Khan's resistance in the city forced Karim Khan to invade Kermanshah the same way. year. The battle of Kermanshah ended in the defeat of Ali-Mardan Khan. Karim Khan appointed Mohammad Khan and Sheikh Ali Khan as military governors of Kermanshah and his fortress. Kermanshah remained mainly under the control of the Zangeneh family throughout the Zand period (1750-1794). The most powerful governor of the city was then Allahqoli Khân Zangeneh. After the death of Ali-Morad Khân Zand in 1785, the governor of Ardalan, Khosrow Khân Bozorgi, seized power in the province and assassinated Allahqoli Khân, who had concentrated his forces in the district of Senna. Khosrow Khân Bozorgi was also an ally of Aqâ Mohammad Khân Qâdjâr (1742-1797), and his victory over Ja'far Khân Zand paved the way for the Qajjar conquest of western Iran.
The Kermanshah region remained a problematic area for the Qadjars because of the tensions created by the presence of the Ottomans in Iraq and concerns about the safety of pilgrims traveling to Shiite shrines in present-day Iraq. In 1806, Fath 'Ali Shah (1772-1834) appointed his first son, Mohammad Ali Mirza, governor of Kermanshah, and in 1809 governor general of the wider region encompassing Kermanshah, Sonqor, Hamedan and Lorestan. Mohammad Ali Mirza expanded the wall of the city and built a new fortress, caravanserais and houses for merchants. The number of these buildings exceeded most of those built in other cities at the beginning of the Qadjair period in Iran. Mohammad Ali Mirza was a cultured and religious man. He invited the Shiite theologian Sheikh Ahmad Ahsa'i to Kermanshah, where he remained from 1814 to 1822. During the last Turkish-Persian war (1821-23), Mohammad Ali Mirza, commander of a modernized and mainly Kurdish army, managed to defeating the Ottomans in 1821 and permanently occupying Zehab in Kermanshah, but he soon died of cholera on his return from Baghdad to Kermanshah. After the death of Mohammad-Ali Mirza, the province of Kermanshah perished, mainly because of the tyranny of incompetent governors.
After Nassedin Shah's accession to the throne in 1848, governance was entrusted only to members of the Qadjair family. In the second half of the nineteenth century, the qdjâr governors of Kermânshâh managed to restore relative security in the region. During this period, a division of the cavalry regiment based at Kermanshah was sent to Tehran to monitor the walls of the city. The Kermansha cavalry regiment also participated in the conquest of Herat during the Anglo-Persian War of 1856-57. In 1871, during his pilgrimage to Shiite shrines in Iraq, Nâsseredin Shâh twice passed by Kermânshâh. He dismissed on occasion Emadoddowleh, governor of Kermanshah, because of the complaints lodged against him by the local with the Shah. His older brother took his place. A year and a half later, the post was restored to him and he occupied it until his death in 1875.
In the years following Emadoddowleh's governance, Kermanshah often changed his governor. As a result, the situation became unstable, leading to tribal revolts and leading to administrative restructuring. The eldest son of Nasseredin Shah, Massoud Mirza, powerful governor of Isfahan (1874-1907), took control of most central and southern provinces, including Kermanshah. During the troubled days that followed the tobacco affair (1890-1891), Amir Nehâm Garrousi was recalled from Azerbaijan and appointed governor (1891-96) of the central provinces of Iran (which included Kermânshâh, Kurdistan and Hamedân) . Amir Nehâm was the last governor of Kermânshâh under Nâsseredin Shâh. Mozaffaredin Shah (1896-1906) first named Zeynol-Abed Khan Hosam-ol-Molk governor of Kermanshah, but he quickly replaced him with others, the last of whom was Abd-ol-Hossein Mirza Farmanfarma. It was during the latter's governance that Russian and British consulates were established in Kermanshah, respectively in 1903 and 1905.
Occupied by the Imperial Russian Army in 1914, followed by the Ottoman Army in 1915 during the First World War, Kermanshah was evacuated in 1917, when British forces arrived to expel the Ottomans. Kermanshah participated actively in the Constitutional Revolution. Part of the population, headed by elected representatives, demanded the protection of the property of the peasants and villagers of Kermanshah - a request that was not approved by the anti-constitutional governor Soltan Mohammad Mirza Seif-ol-Dowleh. After his dismissal and under the Provisional Government in 1909, the Jewish quarter of Kermanshah became the scene of revolts which were managed by the British consul of the moment. Between the end of the First World War and the fall of the Qajjar Dynasty (1918-25), twelve governors, mainly military leaders, ruled the region. The province played an important role during the Qadjair period and later in the republican movement under the Pahlavi dynasty. The city of Kermanshah was badly hit during the Iran-Iraq war, and some areas like Sar-e Pol-e Zahab and Qhasr-e-Shirin were almost completely destroyed. The province was officially named from 1969 to 1986 as Kermanshahan. After the Revolution in 1979, the city was named a Ghahramân Shahr time, and later, from 1986 to 1995, the name of the city as well as that of the province changed to "Bokhtaran" which means west and refers to the location of the city and province in the country. After the Iran-Iraq war, however, the city was renamed Kermanshah, according to the desire of its inhabitants, and in accordance with the Persian literary memory, and that, collective, of the Iranians.
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